Benefits and applications of electroactive polymer actuators. These polymers are also called artificial muscles since they possess similar characteristics to that of biological muscles. The goals of the artificial muscle research institute is to develop, design, fabricate, test, and commercialize medical and industrial products that are either electrically or chemically controllable. Apr 17, 2009 his main research interests include the design, the study, the development, the fabrication and the characterization of innovative electromechanical devices based on electroactive polymer eap materials. Eap materials have functional similarities to biological muscles, including resilience. Application of artificial muscles as actuators in engineering. These navy topics are part of the overall dod 2018.
Artificial muscles and electroactive polymers at jpl. We have measured the functional workspace of eap actuators using the same setup and techniques that we use to test biological muscle. For many years, electroactive polymers eap received relatively little attention due to. Electroactive polymers as artificial muscles semantic scholar. Reality, potential, and challenges spie press monograph vol. The ultimate goal, however, is to create an arm using eap as similar as possible to a human arm, which can beat any human in an arm wrestling competition. This paper attempts to measure several important dynamic characteristics of one type of artificial muscle electro active. In addition to classical materials, such as piezoelectric ceramics and shape memory alloys, polymer based artificial muscles have become the most muscle like material since 1990s. Dec 01, 2002 in the artificial muscle research institute at the university of new mexico, electricity is in the air. Eap materials have functional similarities to biological muscles, including resilience, damage tolerance, and large actuation strains stretching, contracting or. These materials allow emulation of biological muscles to produce insectlike robots and other mechanisms.
Electroactive polymers eap are emerging with capability that can. Eap are resilient, fracture tolerant, noiseless actuators that can be. A comprehensive guide to electroactive polymers eap. Pm6 yoseph barcohen in concept and execution, this book covers the field of eap with careful attention to all its key aspects and full infrastructure, including the available materials, analytical models. Ionic polymermetal composites ipmcs have been proposed as biomimetic actuators that are operable at low applied voltages. The most common type of polymer in the context of building an artificial muscle is the electroactive polymer eap. However, unlike piezoelectric actuators, eaps operate on fundamentally different principals and produce force strain deflections more similar to that of biological muscles. Electroactive polymers eaps offer the promise of creating the flexible, lowmass actuators that can form the basic building blocks of artificial muscles.
Electroactive polymer an overview sciencedirect topics. Dielectric elastomer actuators deas, also known as soft actuators, are being used as artificial muscles in different applications. Jan 26, 2017 electroactive polymer actuators and sensors types, applications, new developments, industry structure and global markets, innovative research and products, inc. He also established a homepage linking websites of worldwide eap. Thus, robotic devices can be made that consist of materials. Polymer artificial muscle technologies are being developed that produce similar strains. Highperformance electroactive polymer actuators based on.
This homepage provides links to various electroactive polymer eap websites worldwide and it is maintained by the jpls ndeaa technologies lab. The aim of the study is to assess the potential of electro active polymers eap. Electroactive polymers, or eaps, are polymers that exhibit a change in size or shape when stimulated by an electric field. Electroactive polymer material responds to electrical impulses when the muscle changes shape. Electroactive polymers eap are actuators that most closely emulate biological muscles compared to any other actuators that are humanmade and therefore they. Such polymers have many attractive characteristics including low weight, fracture tolerance, and pliability. Biomedical applications of electroactive polymer actuators. The book covers the introductory chemistry, physics, and modeling of eap technologies and is structured around the demonstration of eaps in robotic applications. In writing this book, efforts were made to cover the field of eap from all its key aspects, i. Read electroactive polymer eap actuators as artificial muscles. Conductive polymers exhibit volume constriction as water and anions leave an oxidized polymer during reduction, and ionic polymermetal composites with a stationary anionic framework have directional volume expansion as hydrated. Polymers are highly attractive for their inherent properties of mechanical flexibility, light weight, and easy processing. Thus, they are being studied as artificial muscles for a variety of biomimetic motion applications.
Electroactive polymer actuators and sensors artificial muscles electroactive polymers eaps eap materials can be easily manufactured into various shapes due to the ease in processing many polymeric materials, making them very versatile materials. Electroactive polymers as artificial muscles semantic. Electroactive polymer artificial muscle epam spring roll. His main research interests include the design, the study, the development, the fabrication and the characterization of innovative electromechanical devices based on electroactive polymer eap materials.
The development of highly electroactive polymer materials with actuation strains as high as 300% has sparked a wave of. In the artificial muscle research institute at the university of new mexico, electricity is in the air. Electroactive polymers eap are a relatively new class of smart material that deform in the presence of an applied electric field, much like piezoelectric actuators. Hence, we provide an overview of various applications of electroactive polymers in aerospace field, notably aircraft morphing. Eap is an important category of artificial muscles. A largescale effort was carried out to test the performance of seven types of ionic electroactive polymer ieap actuators in spacehazardous environmental factors in laboratory conditions. These types of polymer electroactive polymer are most widespread, being the ideal material in many mechatronics applications and beyond yoseph, 2000. Reality, potential, and challenges second edition, p. The initial challenge is to create a simple humanlike robotic arm which, using electroactive polymers eap as artificial muscles, can beat a human opponent in an arm wrestling match. Piaggio, school of engineering, university of pisa, italy abstract electroactive polymers as smart actuation materials with musclelike properties represent an emerging scientific field, bridging material science, mechanical and. Electroactive polymer artificial muscle epam spring roll actuator developed by sri international. The focus of this book is on electroactive polymer eap actuators and sensors.
Generally, eap materials can generate strains that are as high as two orders of magnitude greater than the strictionlimited. For background information please see a lecture on video entitled electroactive polymers as artificial muscles. Electroactive polymers eap offer alternative low mass, low power consuming, inexpensive actuators eap are resilient, fracture tolerant, noiseless actuators. Electroactive polymer actuators jpls ndeaa technologies website artificial muscles. Electroactive polymer eap actuators as artificial muscles pdf muscles, including resilience, damage tolerance, and large actuation strains recently, effective electroactive polymers eap were developed that induce. Reality, potential, and challenges, second edition edition 2. Mar 22, 2019 certain polymers can be excited by electric, chemical, pneumatic, optical, or magnetic field to change their shape or size. When lab director mohsen shahinpoor applies a voltage to an artificial hand made of a. Their main attractive features are relatively small density, compatibility with large deformations, and ease of manufacture and modification.
Worldwide electroactive polymer actuators webhub artificial muscles. Bar cohen and others published electroactive polymer eap actuators as artificial muscles find, read and cite all the research you need on researchgate. Electroactive polymers eap, which emerged in the last fifteen years exhibiting large strain in response to electrical stimulation, are human made actuators that. The table below compares both types of eap actuators. Electroactive polymer eap actuators as artificial muscles. Electroactive polymer actuators and sensors artificial muscles. A challenge was posed to the eap community to have an arm wrestling between robot that is equipped with eap actuators and human. Biologically inspired robotic applications have recently received significant attention due to developments in novel materials and actuators with an operation principle similar to the natural muscles. Dec 28, 2009 electroactive polymer artificial muscle epam spring roll actuator developed by sri international. To apply them as actuators, it is important to investigate dynamic characteristics of the artificial muscles to be used in designing a system with requirements of dynamic behaviors. Electroactive polymers as artificial muscles reality and.
Elastomers used in dielectric elastomer actuators usually. Experimental investigation and modeling of the lonely stroke behavior in supercoiled polymer artificial muscles paper 17546 authors. In this second edition the reader is brought current on promising advances in eap that have occurred in electric eap, electroactive polymer gels, ionomeric polymer metal composites, carbon nanotube actuators, and more. The electromechanical properties of electroactive polymer materials endow them the capability to work as both sensors and actuators in the field of aerospace.
Electroactive polymers eap are emerging with capability that can mimic muscles to actuate biologically inspired mechanisms. In addition to classical materials, such as piezoelectric ceramics and shape memory alloys, polymerbased artificial muscles have become the most muscle like material since 1990s. Artificial muscles response to various external stimulus ion concentration, electric field, temperature, light, etc. The materials that were developed in the early days of this field generated limited actuation strain and therefore received relatively little. Typically, eaps fall under two distinct categories. Sbir navy electroactive polymer actuators for unmanned. They are one of the most studied polymer actuators and numerous applications are being developed, including electroactive fluid pumps, conformal skins for braille screens, insectlike robots, and artificial muscles autofocus lens positioner, which can focus a camera by moving the lens by as much. Pdf electroactive polymers as artificial muscles reality and. Biomimetic actuators using electroactive polymers eap as. Jul 22, 2019 electroactive polymer eap actuators as artificial muscles pdf muscles, including resilience, damage tolerance, and large actuation strains recently, effective electroactive polymers eap were developed that induce.
Realizing the potential of dielectric elastomer artificial. Using effective eap materials, as artificial muscles, one can develop biologically inspired robots and locomotives that can possibly walk, fly, hop, dig, swim andor dive. Artificial muscles, also known as musclelike actuators, are materials or devices that mimic natural muscle and can change their stiffness, reversibly contract, expand, or rotate within one component due to an external stimulus such as voltage, current, pressure or temperature. An electroactive polymer composite with reinforced bending strength. Reality, potential and challenges, spie press monograph vol. Artificial muscle research institute has become the worlds leading institution in artificial muscle research, development, and applications.
Implementation and feasibility of artificial muscles in. It is hoped that this overview can instruct the reader on how eaps can enable bioinspired motion systems. Electroactive polymer actuators and devices eapad xx. Electroactive polymer eap actuators, also known as artificial muscles, possess extraordinary properties such as low efficiency. In addition, some polymers exhibit large property changes in response to electrical stimulation, much beyond what is achievable by inorganic materials. This paper attempts to measure several important dynamic characteristics of one type of artificial muscle electro active polymer eap. Electroactive polymer eap actuators as artificial muscles is a delightful book dealing with one of. Read electroactive polymer eap actuators as artificial. Electroactive polymer actuators and devices eapad xxii monday thursday 27 30 april 2020. The materials that were developed in the early days of this field generated limited actuation strain and therefore received relatively little attention. These actuators closely emulate the stimulus response capacities of animal muscle and so are often referred to as artificial muscles. Electroactive polymers eap are materials that can exhibit change in shape or size with respect to electrical stimulation.
Reality, potential, and challenges, second edition spie press monograph vol. The first challenge was held at the electroactive polymer actuators and devices conference in 2005. Electroactive polymers eap as artificial muscles epam. Electroactive polymer actuators as artificial muscles. Synthetic muscle electroactive polymer eap shapemorphing and pressure sensing for robotic grippers. Artificial muscle technologies have wide potential applications in biomimetic machines, including robots, industrial actuators and powered exoskeletons. Electroactive polymers eap are actuators that most closely emulate biological muscles compared to any other actuators that are humanmade and therefore they earned the moniker artificial muscles. The purpose of this project is to develop and demonstrate the use of electroactive polymer eap based actuators for unmanned undersea and surface vehicles uxv control surfaces in a high seastate ocean environment.
Electroactive polymer actuators and devices eapad xxii. The eap field is experiencing interest due to the ability to build. This was a challenge in which research groups around the world competed to design a robotic arm consisting of eap muscles that could defeat a human in an arm wrestling match. A typical characteristic property of an eap is that they will undergo a large amount of deformation while sustaining large forces the majority of historic actuators are made of ceramic. Artificial muscle to expand smart sensors and actuator.
Pdf electroactive polymers as artificial musclescapabilities. We found a materials solution that relies on an established technology, a dielectric elastomer soft capacitor, which. Ionic electroactive polymer artificial muscles in space. Electroactive polymer eap actuators are electrically responsive materials that have several characteristics in common with natural muscles. Electroactive polymer eap actuators, also known as artificial muscles, possess extraordinary properties such as low efficiency consumption, compliance, biocompatibility and ability. Electroactive polymer actuators for unmanned undersea and. Meanwhile, as this technology evolves novel mechanisms that are biologically inspired are starting to emerge, where eap materials are providing actuation with.
Jul 07, 2014 artificial muscle to expand smart sensors and actuator offering monday, july 7, 2014 by parker global team parker recently announced that it is embarking on the development of new smart sensors and actuators using electroactive polymer technology eap. A read is counted each time someone views a publication summary such as the title, abstract, and list of authors, clicks on a figure, or views or downloads the fulltext. Artificial muscles using electroactive polymers eap 2 have emerged that exhibit large strains and they led to a great paradigm change with regards to the capability of electroactive polymers and their potential 1. Electroactive polymer eap balloon actuator duration. However, the bending strain and generating force of the ipmc actuators have generally exhibited a tradeoff relationship, whereas simultaneous enhancement of both the qualities is required for their practical applications.
Carpi is also founder and cocoordinator for the european scientific network for artificial muscles. Between november 29, 2017 and january 7, 2018 you may talk directly with the topic authors tpoc to ask technical questions about the topics. Development of intelligent robots requires the combination of strong muscles actuators and acute sensors, as well as the understanding of the biological model. Performance indicators of actuators, biological or artificial, have been included. For decades, eap received relatively little attention due to their limited actuation capability.
To build new robots that can safely interact with people, while completing complex tasks, we need artificial muscles. Electroactive polymer actuators and sensors volume 33 issue 3 yoseph barcohen, qiming zhang. One of the attractive applications that are considered for eap. Electroactive polymers eap are actuators that most closely emulate biological muscles compared to any other actuators that are humanmade. Electroactive polymers wikimili, the free encyclopedia. The purpose of this project is to develop and demonstrate the use of electroactive polymer eapbased actuators for unmanned undersea and surface vehicles uxv control surfaces in a high seastate ocean environment.
The most common applications of this type of material are in actuators and sensors. Artificial muscles using electroactive polymers eap. Electroactive polymers as artificial muscles capabilities, potentials and challenges yoseph barcohen1 abstract for many years, electroactive polymers eap received relatively little attention due to the small number of available materials nd their limited actuation capability. Electroactive polymer actuators and sensors mrs bulletin. The term of artificial muscles covers the most of soft actuators. To study if electroactive polymers eap can be considered as artificial muscles we are making a direct comparison between the contractile properties of eaps and biological muscle.
Eapbased artificial muscles offer a combination of light weight, low power requirements, resilience and agility for locomotion and manipulation. Certain polymers can be excited by electric, chemical, pneumatic, optical, or magnetic field to change their shape or size. For convenience and practical actuation, using electrical excitation is the most attractive stimulation method and the related materials are known as electroactive polymers eap and artificial muscles. Ideally, these devices would be completely soft, as strong as natural muscles, and powered by electricity for easy integration with the rest of the robot.1171 1284 951 332 1070 546 580 1 328 1076 393 178 777 986 177 31 1273 1083 1618 1243 3 804 393 1104 1631 1011 467 895 451 340 400 771 462 407 563 744 41 1270 902 391 151 511